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Grammatik 6

The Present Tense

In English, the infinitive (the basic form of the verb) is signalled by "to"; i.e. to learn, to play, to do.

In German, the infinitive consists of the verb stem plus en or, less often, n; i.e. lernen, spielen, tun.

In English, verbs only have an ending in the third person singular; i.e. he/it/she learns, plays, does.

Singular: Plural:
I learn we learn
you learn you learn
he/it/she learns they learn

In German, all forms of the present tense have an ending. The verb stem is not changed, but the infinitive ending en or n is changed to:

Singular: Plural:
ich lerne wir lernen
du lernst ihr lernt
er/es/sie lernt sie lernen
Sie lernen

Note than in the 1st and 3rd person plural the ending is identical to the infinitive ending; i.e. wir lernen, sie lernen. Therefore verbs with an n as their infinite ending also also end in n in the 1st and 3rd personal plural and in the Sie-form; i.e. wir tun, sie tun, Sie tun.

If the stem ends in d (like "finden") or t (like "arbeiten"), or in combinations like gn (like "regnen"), an e is inserted before the personal endings st and t.

Singular: Plural:
ich finde wir finden
du findest ihr findet
er/es/sie findet sie finden
Sie finden

Singular: Plural:
ich arbeite wir arbeiten
du arbeitest ihr arbeitet
er/es/sie arbeitet sie arbeiten
Sie arbeiten

If the stem ends in s, z, or ß, the personal ending in the 2nd person singular is t and not st:

Singular: Plural:
ich heiße wir heißen
du heißt ihr heißt
er/es/sie heißt sie heißen
Sie heißen

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Grammatik 5

Plural Forms

German uses five endings to mark the plural of nouns:

- (no change)

- e

- er

- (e)n

- s

Some nouns of the first three types add an umlaut in the plural. There is a gender distinction for German nouns in the singular (der, die, das) but there is no gender distinction in the plural. All plural nouns (in the nominative and accusative) take the definite article "die". The indefinite article "ein" has no plural form but other "ein"-words like "kein" do (keine). Possessive adjectives (like "mein, dein," etc.) are also ein-words and form the plural accordingly ("meine, deine," etc.).

When learning a new noun, always memorize the plural form as well. There is no sure way to predict the plural form but these rules will help you to make an educated guess.

<Examples:

<Type 1 (no change): das Zimmer (die Zimmer), das Mädchen (die Mädchen)
<Type 1 (with umlaut): der Vater (die Väter), der Garten (die Gärten), der Bruder (die Brüder), die Mutter (die Mütter)

<Type 2 (-e): der Abend, der Monat, das Geräusch, das Telefon
<Type 2 (with umlaut): der Fuß (die Füße), der Stuhl, der Sohn, die Wand, die Hand

<Type 3 (-er): das Kind (die Kinder)
<Type 3 (with umlaut): der Mann (die Männer), das Wort, das Buch, das Haus

<Type 4 (-en/n/nen)
-en: der Professor (die Professoren), die Tür, die Uhr, das Bett.

-n: a) nouns which end on a vowel (mainly on -e) in the singular: die Adresse, die Straße, die Woche but a number of b) nouns ending on consonants (mostly -r) in the singular: die Nummer (die Nummern)

-n: N- nouns are a group of masculine nouns that take -n or -en in all cases but the nominative singular e.g.: der Student -en, (den Studenten, dem Studenten, die Studenten), der Mensch-en, -en, der Junge-n,-n, der Nachbar-n,-n

-nen: nouns derived from masculine forms. Their singular forms end in -in: die Studentin (die Studentinnen), die Amerikanerin, die Professorin. These nouns are always feminine.

<Type 5 (-s): foreign words like: das Auto, das Radio

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Grammatik 4

Genitive

The genitive case indicates possession. For proper names, German adds an 's', just like in English. The only difference is that in German you do not add an apostrophy: Peter's car = Peters Auto; Mary's lamb = Marys Lamm.

Masculine and neuter nouns add an 's' if the noun has more than one syllable, an 'es' if it has only one syllable. Note that in the genitive the article has to change, too.

One syllable:
das Kind -> des Kindes
More than one syllable:
der Großvater -> des Großvaters

seems they couldn't decide on the proper genitive ending...

The only exception to this rule are masculine 'N-nouns' as they also add 'n' or 'en' in the genitive. They do not add an additional 's'.

Feminine and plural nouns do not change in the genitive.

Jakobs Hemd = Jacob's shirt

Petras Kleid = Petra's dress

die Hose des Mannes = the man's pants (Mannes because it is masculine and has one syllable)

die Schuhe des Professors = the professor's shoes (Professors because it has more than one syllable)

der Hut der Frau = the woman's hat (Frau is feminine, so there is no change)

die Socken der Kinder = the children's socks (Kinder does not change because it is plural)

  masculine neuter feminine plural
definite article des des der der
indefinite article eines eines einer keiner

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Grammatik 3

Dative

 

The dative case is the case of the indirect object. The indirect object is the person or thing "to whom?" or "for whom?" an action is done. Thus, to figure out which part of a sentence is the indirect object, ask the question: "To whom or for whom". (If you're having problems with such 'questions', review the nominative).

In English, you oftentimes (but not always) use the prepositions 'to' or 'for' to indicate such an indirect object.

Example:

I'm buying my girl-friend a bottle of ketchup.
OR
I'm buying a bottle of ketchup for my girl-friend.

Both sentences mean the same.
In German, the indirect object is always expressed by the dative case, never with 'to' or 'for'.

Look at the sentence elements to help you figure out their cases:

I'm buying my girl-friend a bottle of ketchup. = Ich kaufe meiner Freundin eine Flasche Ketchup.

Ich is the subject. (Who or what is buying the ketchup?)

Meiner Freundin is the indirect object. (I am buying the ketchup for whom?)

Ich gebe meinem Partner Blumen.
I'm giving my partner flowers. OR: I'm giving flowers to my partner.

Mein Partner gibt mir auch Blumen.
My partner is also giving me flowers. OR: My partner is also giving flowers to me.

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خــــــــواهـــــــــش

از دوستان خواهش میکنم در

 نظر سنجی جدید وبلاگ(در سمت

 راست صفحه) شرکت کنند، چون به

 نتیجه اش برای یک تحقیق نیاز دارم.

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Grammatik 2

این هم سری دوم گرامر آلمانی به زبان انگلیسی(آگر زبانتون خوب باشه خیلی به درد میخوره)

Accusative

English
German
 
Are these sentences complete?
 
Claudia has ...
She loves
She buys
 
No, they are missing a direct object.
Sind diese Sätze komplett?
 
Claudia hat ...
Sie liebt
Sie kauft
 
Nein, hier fehlt das direkte Objekt. 
Claudia has a cat.
She loves the cat.
She buys a bird.
Claudia hat eine Katze.
Sie liebt die Katze.
Sie kauft einen Vogel.

In English as in German, there are different cases. In English, the definite ("the") and indefinite ("a") articles are the same in the nominative and the accusative case. There is a change, however, when you use personal pronouns. Say, the subject of a sentence (i.e. the nominative) is "she". When used in the accusative, it becomes "her".

The woman (=subject) is here. She (=subject) is here.
I (=subject) see the woman (=direct object)? I (=subject) see her (=direct object).
   
Is the man here? Is he here?
Can you see the man? Can you see him?

The difference of subject (nominative) and direct object (accusative) in English becomes clear when you look at personal pronouns (i.e. she/her; he/him)

Nominative

I

you

he

she

it

we

you

they

WHO?

Accusative

me

you

him

her

it

us

you

them

WHOM?

In German, the definite ("der") and indefinite ("ein") articles used with masculine nouns in the accusative also indicate case. They change from "der" in the nominative to "den" in the accusative.

Der Mann (=subject) ist groß. The man is tall.
Sie (=subject) liebt den Mann (=object). She loves the man / She loves him.  

Articles for feminine nouns, neuter nouns, and for plural forms are exactly the same in the nominative and in the accusative case. 

Only the article for masculine nouns changes in the accusative case.

 

Masculine

Neuter

Feminine

Plural

Nom.

der/ein Hund

das/ein Tier

die/eine Katze

die/keine Tiere

Acc.

den/einen Hund

das/ein Tier

die/eine Katze

die/keine Tiere

 

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معرفی کتاب

سلام دوستان، سوالی که زیاد پرسیده می شد این بود که کتاب برای یادگیری معرفی بشه. به نظر من این کتاب ها مفیده:

1- اول از همه یک مرجع خوب دستور زبان نیاز دارید که به نظر من کتاب "دستور جامع زبان آلمانی- استاد حسین پنبه چی" مناسبه.

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2-یک دونه کتاب که نمونه مکالمات رو در شرایط مختلف داشته باشه

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3-سری کتاب های آموزشی TANGRAM یا Schritte -کار کردن این کتاب ها خیلی مهمه چون جنبه های مهم یادگیری زبان مثل شنیداری-خواندن- واژگان-دستور زبان - مکالمه را مورد بررسی قرار میده. تاکیدی که من دارم اینه که هر زبانی رو که خواستید یاد بگیرید به Listening یا همان قسمت شنیداری خیلی اهمیت بدید تا به لهجه ها آشنا بشید ، چون هر چقدر هم که گرامرتون خوب باشه، تا نفهمید طرف گفتگو چی میگه، هیچ فایده ای نداره.

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4- یک فرهنگ لغات آلمانی - فارسی

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5- کتاب خود آموز زبان آلمانی نوشته ی هاینتس گریسباخ با نام :

Deutsche Sprachlehre für Ausländer  که به زبان آلمانی هست ولی راهنمای آن هم در بازار موجود هست.

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باز هم تاکید می کنم که این ها نظر و توصیه شخصی من بود، چون من در اون حدی نیستم که بخوام بگم که حتما این کتاب ها خوب هستند

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Grammatik

سلام دوستان این هم یک مطلب گرامری در مورد حالت فاعلی در زبان آلمانی:(به زبان انگلیسی)(خیلی مفیده به شرطی که زبانتون خوب باشه)

The subject of a sentence is the person or thing who performs the action. The subject of a sentence is always in the nominative case.

She works a lot.

To find out what the subject of a sentence is, look at the verb first and then ask 'who (or what)?' In our sample sentence, the verb is 'works'. Add 'who (or what)' and you get: 'Who (or What)' works a lot? The answer is: She. 'She' is thus the subject of the sentence

What is the subject (in the nominative case) in these sentences?

My sister eats a Schnitzel.
Meine Schwester isst ein Schnitzel.

The verb is 'eats'. 'Who (or what)' eats a Schnitzel? - 'My sister'.
'My sister' is the subject of the sentence, in the nominative case..

My sister plays (a game).
'Who or what' plays? My sister.

This computer is very expensive.
'Who or what' is very expensive? This computer.

Und jetzt auf Deutsch!

Meine Schwester isst ein Schnitzel.
'Wer oder was' isst ein Schnitzel? Meine Schwester.

Meine Schwester spielt.
'Wer oder was' spielt? Meine Schwester.

Der Computer ist sehr teuer.
'Wer oder was' ist sehr teuer?
Der Computer.

The nominative case is also used for so-called predicate complements. Take a look at this sentence: John is a nice guy. You know now that John is the subject (in the nominative case) of this sentence: 'Who (or what') is a nice guy? John. Whenever you have a sentence in which the subject = something else (John = nice guy), the predicate complement (nice guy) is also in the nominative case because it is 'equal to' the subject. This commonly is the case when you have linking verbs like to be (sein) or to become (werden).

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